Bodiless lacquerware: the treasure of Fujian Capital seen in gold

In 1959, the 10th National Day of new China, Chinese and foreign guests gathered in the Great Hall of the People. At the entrance of the banquet hall, Premier Zhou strolled up to a pair of bronzed lions more than two meters high and pointed to them and said to the foreign guests: “I can lift it with both hands!”Before he finished his speech, the Premier set himself up and lifted the lion easily with both hands, which made the foreign guests look dumbstruck and confused.What’s the secret?Premier Zhou said with a smile: “It is not my power that can lift the cauldron. This is not a lion cast in copper, but a pair of lions made of fuzhou bodiless lacquer.”For a while, all the foreign friends present were amazed and spoke highly of the superb Chinese craftsmanship.Mr. Guo Moruo, who was accompanying him at that time, also wrote a poem, “See nine tripod wu, lift one feather light”, praising this magical lacquerware making technology.Bodiless lacquerware in Fuzhou, along with cloisonne in Beijing and porcelain in Jingdezhen, is one of the three treasures of Chinese craft, and became one of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage in 2006.Its texture is firm and light, its shape is elegant and unique, its color is magnificent and bright, its decoration is fine, and it is strong and durable. It has unique national style and strong local characteristics, and it has the advantages of not being damaged, broken, not falling off the paint, and not fading.Fuzhou lacquerware began in the Southern Song Dynasty.Defrocked lacquerware was developed during the Qianlong period, when lacquer-maker Shen Shao-an, working in a temple, discovered that the wooden plaques of the gate were decayed, but glossy papered papered bottom mountings were intact.Shen Shao ‘an was inspired by the careful, after going home, constantly thinking about the experiment, the “clip zhu” technique reduction, and innovation in the technique and material, created the earliest bodiless lacquer.Shen Shao ‘an became the originator of bodiless lacquerware in Fuzhou.After Shen Shao ‘an paid tribute to the imperial court of the chrysanthemum petals shaped lacquer cover bowl, 10 cm high, 10.8 cm diameter, wall as thin as paper, less than one millimeter thick.Emperor Qianlong saw the dragon Yan yue, personally in the cover, bowl heart inscription clerical script filled gold poem: “system is chrysanthemum type, than chrysanthemum light.Drinking tea and tao sentence, dew its English.”Emperor Qianlong’s poem vividly describes the characteristics of Shen Shao ‘an bodiless lacquer ware, which had a great influence at that time.In 1844, Fuzhou was opened as one of the five treaty ports, craftsmen have more opportunities to contact the overseas art style and production skills, so that lacquer art material technology and technology had greater development.In 1898, Shen Zhenghao and Shen Zhengxun selected bodiless lacquerware to participate in the Paris International Exposition and won the gold medal. From then on, Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware emerged in the international arts and crafts circle.Then, shen Zhengho, Shen Zhengxun, Shen Zhengyu, Shen Youlan and other bodily-free lacquerware family products were selected to participate in the exhibition in Italy, the United States, Berlin, London and other places, winning a variety of MEDALS, reputation.1920, Shen Shaoan fifth-generation Sun Shen is picks, Shen Zheng turn illuminated and mud silver roughly into paint, the original red, black, zhu, purple paint skill, on the basis of the new developed, day blue, apple, green, gold and silver bronze color, such as make lacquer express ways and means to get a new change, to work to achieve the effect of the gorgeous brilliant, brilliant.Shen Youlan (middle) in front of Shen Shao ‘an Lanji bodiless lacquer shop, the soul of the craftsman to improve the bodiless lacquer is the rebirth of the lost Zhu skill.The process of making bodiless lacquerware is to make a piece of linen cloth and a pile of clay clay into a bright, light and textured art work.Mould making is the first step in the process of bodiless lacquer ware.Craftsmen first use gypsum or directly with finished products as a model, using mud strips coiled on the contour line of the utensils, and brush with soapy water and other isolators, and then cast gypsum on the utensils to make gypsum molds.It is then further modified, layer by layer papering the embryos with glossy (ramie cloth) or satchel, with varnish as adhesive.Lacquerware must be dried in a shady room. After repeatedly brushing the linen cloth with clay of different sizes, the completely dried linen body turned into a hard shell.The craftsman beats the outer shell of the linen cloth with a hard object, and the plaster body attached to it is broken and falls off. This process is called deuteration (note: this is the Yang removal method, and the Yin removal method does not need to knock, but just remove the linen shell attached to the inner wall of the plaster mold).After filling ash, painting, grinding and dry treatment of dozens of processes, the end of the tire process.Next comes the more complex art of painting, which imparts color and soul to lacquerware.One of the distinguishing features of Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware is that it is “rich in color and bright as a mirror”. People’s good impression of it depends to some extent on the rich and colorful decoration.Its traditional xiu techniques are black push light, color push light, thin material paint, paint halo gold, brocade, vermilion paint tracing gold, silver inlay color, Taiwan flower, inlay luodian, etc.;After the founding of New China, and developed gem flash, sink flower, pile lacquer relief, carved lacquer, imitation color kiln change, change coating, imitation bronze and other techniques.And the xiu painting skills with jade carving, stone carving, ivory carving, wood carving, horn carving art together, so that the surface decoration of lacquerware dazzling.Fuzhou bodily-free lacquerware products can be roughly divided into two categories of practical and appreciation, including large vases, large screens, various lacquer paintings, tea sets, coffee sets, stationery, tableware and more than 300 specifications of more than 3,000 varieties.The production of a bodiless lacquerware work requires dozens or even hundreds of processes, and the construction period usually takes more than several months. The dry process alone takes a lot of time. Every work embodies the painstaking efforts of the craftsman, and after the baptism of time, it shines more brightly.”Lacquer came from Xishu and was born in Fuzhou.”Mr. Guo Moruo was very fond of Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware before his death, and wrote poems to praise it. He was impressed by the exquisite art of fuzhou bodiless lacquerware, which is “exquisite and exquisite, and gives birth to all things”, and has reached the superb realm of “the world is unmatched, and the world is suspected to be unique”.Most lacquerware are brown, black, red and other background colors, but Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware is gorgeous and colorful, with delicate workmanship and rich colors of brown, yellow, green, blue and so on.The background color of the black paint can show the richness of gold and the crystal of silver. Besides, fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware is not afraid of water immersion, deformation, fading, strong, temperature resistant, acid and alkali corrosion resistant.In addition to its shape, the beauty of a bodiless lacquerware depends to some extent on the richness of its decoration.The diversity of painting techniques gives fuzhou bodiless lacquerware elegant beauty.The final state of lacquer on utensils is mostly completed in this step.There are many kinds of painting techniques for fuzhou bore-free lacquerware. The traditional painting techniques include black painting, color painting, thin material painting, color painting with gold, brocade pattern, vermillion painting with gold, inlaid with silver, table flower, inlaid with mother-of-pearl and so on. Later, the techniques of imitation painting, imitation painting, imitation bronze and so on were developed, which make the surface devices of lacquerware dazzling.Fuzhou lacquerware products are ever-changing. They can be lined with abacus beads, loofah, newspaper, even leaves, mung beans, rice and so on.In the long course of history, artisans give full play to their imagination and combine paint with other materials.Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware “bright as a mirror” is pushed out by pushing light.Fuzhou push light or with a very traditional method, with a very fine tile ash, oil by hand repeatedly friction.This is a magical process from scratch, through the repeated friction of technicians, and then wipe off the impurities out of the ground with cloth and water.Bright designs were slowly coming out, and they were not directly visible.If you look closely, you’ll notice that the patterns are covered in translucent paint, presenting a subtle beauty.The beauty of bodiless lacquerware ultimately lies in the artistic beauty and spiritual beauty of lacquer art itself.The nature and language of lacquer have already gone beyond the physical nature, and the natural combination of technology and tao reflects the myriad of elegance and flowery.Nowadays, under the impact of market economy, many traditional handicrafts are in danger of disappearing, and handicrafts are getting more and more neglected. Fuzhou Bodiless lacquerware is no exception.To this end, Fuzhou issued “Fuzhou boreal lacquerware geographical Indications product protection management rules” and other programs, the implementation of lacquer art culture brand strategy, lacquer art development momentum is getting better and better.Promote the protection and inheritance of Fuzhou lacquer art by strengthening the construction of inheritors and carrying out practical activities of inheritance of intangible heritage art.In addition, relevant enterprises and institutions are encouraged to apply for the national demonstration base of intangible cultural heritage production protection and fujian Provincial key unit of Intangible cultural heritage production protection, and lacquer cultural institutions are cultivated and supported to build fuzhou lacquer art famous brand and promote the formation of lacquer cultural industrial cluster with strong leading demonstration effect.It is worth mentioning that in recent years, through the innovation of materials, shapes, themes and other aspects, fuzhou has made great achievements in the inheritance of skills and product development through activities such as “Intangible cultural Heritage into life”.According to statistics, the lacquerware industry in Fuzhou has more than 50,000 employees, including more than 100 masters of arts and crafts above the provincial level.In fuzhou’s three lanes and seven alleys and other popular scenic spots, mirrors, combs, bookmarks and other bodiless lacquerware trinkets have become features to attract tourists.In order to allow visitors to visit the ancient house at the same time, but also to understand the Chinese lacquer art, especially fuzhou lacquer art development of the vast history.In 2020, In order to activate the ancient house, Fuzhou city chose lotus Garden to build shen Shao ‘an Lacquer Art Museum and Shen Shao ‘an Lacquer Art Research Institute to spread lacquer culture and art.The museum is based on the basic courtyard structure of the Lotus Garden, divided into four main contents: the development of Chinese lacquer art, the development of Shen Shao ‘an boat-free lacquerware, Chinese contemporary lacquer art works, and the space of Chinese lacquer life aesthetics.There are nearly a thousand pieces of classic lacquer art works in different periods by Shen Shaoan zhengji, Xun Ji, LAN Ji, Li Zhiqing, Gao Xiuquan, Qiao Shiguang and other masters, as well as nearly 100 pieces of famous and award-winning works by contemporary lacquer artists.Fuzhou boreal lacquerware is light and magnificent, sweeping away the dust and sand of more than 200 years of history. Though made by man, it looks like heaven.

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