Before the rise of Rome, Latin boys probably wore masks at festivals

Plautus derives his motivation and language from the hotel, while Trentius derives his motivation and language from the family of good citizens.Plautus, with its rude inn, its unrestrained but charming maid-girls, its necessary shopkeepers, and its soldiers with their jingling swords, makes the world of slavery particularly humorous.Their heaven is cellar, their fate is scourge;The plays that have disappeared from Trentius, at least, have been revised.In Plautus, we encounter mostly immature or accomplished villains;Reading Trentius, we often come across pure honest men, and if occasionally the master of a whoring colony is robbed, or a boy is taken to a whoring colony, it has a moral purpose, perhaps because of brotherly love, perhaps because the boy is afraid to set foot in the dirty place.Plautus’s play is full of the incompatibility of saloon and family;His wife and his family were despised everywhere, so the husband was temporarily liberated, not sure whether he could be welcomed by his beloved family, for the great joy.The comedy of Trentius is not a more moral but a more suitable idea of female and marital life.Plays generally end in a happy wedding, and there are always two, if possible — just as For every seduction menand has made his name, there must be a marriage to remedy it.Menander’s ode to celibacy was often repeated shyly by the Roman who adapted his plays.The embittered lover, the tender husband at the birthing bed, the dying sister, are beautifully and delightfully described in The Eunuch and Andrea’s Maid.In the epilogue of “The Mother-in-law,” there is even a rescue of a virtuous prostitute, which is purely Menander’s role and, of course, was booed by the Roman audience.In Plautus’s play, the father exists only to ridicule and deceive his son;As for Trentius, in The Disturbance, his father’s wisdom was able to turn his fallen son into a good man, and because he always had good instructions for education, the theme of his best play, Kunzhong, was to find a proper middle way, neither too lenient as his uncle, nor too strict as his father.Plautus’s plays were written for the masses, and he blurted out all the godless and cynical words that the stage manager permitted;Trentius professed that his object was to please the good and, like Menander, to hurt no one’s feelings.Plautus used intense and often boisterous dialogue, and his plays required the most lively expressions and movements of the wise. Trentius limited himself to “quiet conversation.”Plautus’s language is full of witty twists and puns, double-toned words, comical coinages, Aristophanic affixes, apocryphal Greek banter.This capricious repetition is unknown to Trentius, whose dialogue is carried out with perfect symmetry, and whose highlights are all in aphoristic twists of elegant police practice.Compared with plautus’s comedy, trentius’s comedy is not an improvement, either from a poetic or moral point of view.As for innovation, neither, but still less, if possible, trentius;”Simulation is more close to true” the dubious praise at least incompetent another major, namely the young poet can reengineering may submit the yue people, but don’t know how to rebuild his joy, so plautus, imitation may submit comedy, such as “, the ancient “, “a small box comedy” and two “ba qi”, seems to have magic to save a lot of original ever-flowingFar from the comedy of half Menander.Neither can the connoisseur of art consider the change from brutish to tasteless as progress, nor can the moralist consider the change from plautus’ obscenity and indifference to Trentius’ morality as progress.But there has been progress in language.Elegance of language was the poet’s pride;Especially because of the magic of his language, Cicero, Caesar and Quinctirian, the best art critics of later times, regarded him as the leader of the poets of the Roman Republic.In this respect alone, we may regard the comedy of Trentius as the earliest achievement of the artist’s pure imitation of Greek art, and mark a new era in Roman literature, for the essence of Roman literature is not in the development of poetry but in the evolution of the Latin language.In the most determined literary polemic, the new comedy opens a way.Plautus’s style had become deeply ingrained in the Roman citizenry, and The comedies of Trentius met with fierce opposition from the public, who found the new comedies “tasteless in language” and “weak in writing”.In the prologue, which is not intended for this purpose, the seemingly sensitive poet responds with rebuttals, full of defensive and offensive arguments, ignoring the public, which has twice abandoned his Mother-in-law for a group of gladiators and rope-racers, to the cultured upper class.His declaration that he sought only the admiration of the “good” implied that one should never despise works of art appreciated by the “few.”Nobles were said to have helped him with his writing by discussion or even cooperation, and he did not refute or even consented.He certainly carried through his ideas;Even in literature the minority gained the advantage, and the comedy of the art of the exclusive class took the place of the comedy of the people, and by 620, or 134 BC, we see plautus’s plays no longer in common use.This is all the more remarkable because Trentius died so early that after his death no man of distinction was left to work in this field.The comedies of Tulpilius (who died at a very high age in 651, 103 BC) and other fillers have all or nearly all been forgotten.By the end of the month, one critic had commented on the comedies that the new comedies were even worse than the new bad money.We have pointed out before that during the sixth century, in addition to the Greco-Roman comedies, there was probably an indigenous comedy, which did not imitate the peculiar life of the capital but depicted the deeds of the Latin countryside.Of course, the Trentius soon adopted this comedy as their own;On the one hand literal translation, on the other hand pure fictionalization to romanize the Greek comedy, is entirely in keeping with the spirit of the Trentius school.The principal representative of this school was Lucius Avranius (at his height in 660, or about 90 BC).His comedy is too fragmentary to give us a clear impression, but it does fit in with what Roman art critics said about him.Many of his native comedies take their structural form from Greek swindles, though the fictions are of course shorter than the originals.In detail, too, he borrowed from Menand, on the one hand, and from the old literature of his own country, what he liked.But the Latin localism peculiar to Titinius, the originator of the comedy, is seldom seen in Avranius;His titles were commonplace, and might always have been some Greek comedy parody with a change of costume.Subtle compromises and subtleties — literary metaphors are common — are characteristic of him and of Trentius;The moral adviser brought his plays close to the dramatic, and this tendency, combined with the impertinence of his manner and the purity of his writing, was shared by both of them.Later critics have identified Avranius with menand, Trentius, etc., so thoroughly that he wore his coat in the same shape as Menand, if he were an Italian, wore it, and he himself said that trentius was, in his opinion, superior to all other poets.Farce reappears in Roman literature this week.Farce itself is ancient;Before the rise of Rome, Latin boys might have donned masks and improvised farces at festivals. These masks represented special characters, and they never changed.Atla had belonged to Oscan, had been destroyed in Hannibal’s war, and had been sacrificed for the purpose of jest, so they chose it as the Latin “City of Fools,” from which they obtained a fixed local setting for the farce;From this time on, the performance was commonly known as “Oscani” or “Atraxi”.But this banter has nothing to do with the stage, and nothing to do with literature;There are no scripts, at least not in the world.It is in this period that the Atlasius is given to the really clever, as the Greeks used it to amuse themselves after a tragedy;Such changes certainly indicate the depth of literary activity here.Did this literary play develop entirely independently, or was it driven by a similar play on words in many ways in Lower Italy, which we can no longer judge;But each play is the original, it is true.The founder of the new literature, Lucius Pomponius of the Latin colony of Bononia, appeared in the first half of the seventh century, and in addition to his plays, the poet Novius soon became popular.As long as the mere fragmentary accounts and reports of ancient writers allow us to judge, we may say that such plays are short farces, usually or merely one-act plays, and that their attraction lies not in their absurdity and ramblings, but in the intensity of their descriptions of certain classes and situations.Such games articles like to write about festivals and public behavior, such as “The Wedding,” “March 1,” “The Funny Man Candidate.”There were foreigners, such as the Gaul and Syrians of the Trans-Alpes;In particular, various industries often appear on the stage.The keeper of the epilogues, the fortune-teller, the ornithologist, the physician, the tax-collector, the painter, the fisherman, the baker, all came and went on the stage;The bearer suffered much, but the puller suffered even more, and in the world of Roman fools he seemed to occupy the place of the dressmaker of today.City life thus receives considerable attention, and the joys and sorrows of the peasants show themselves in every aspect.

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